A bitumen binder will undergo oxidation over time with exposure to oxygen, heat and sunlight. Oxidised binder is hard and brittle, and this brittleness can lead to to the cracking of surface seals and ravelling of both surface seals and asphaltic surfaces.
- A material used to fill the interstices between small stones or coarse gravels. It provides mechanical, chemical and physical bonding and holds the aggregate particles together as a coherent mass - Glossary of Austroads Terms.
- A manufactured material used in small amounts in stabilisation to change the properties of the existing material - Glossary of Austroads Terms.
- A bituminous material used for waterproofing the surface and holding an aggregate layer to the base - Glossary of Austroads Terms.