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Absorption Trench - An Absorption Trench is a trench that is excavated into the ground and is installed along the natural contour of the ground and contains an arch or slotted pipe, aggregate, geo-textile, and is back filled with topsoil. Absorption trenches treat wastewater from toilets, laundries, bathrooms and kitchens. The length of trench depends on the soils absorptive capacity and the local climatic conditions.
Access Lane - An access lane is a rear or side lane providing access to parking on lots with street frontage and/or short connections between access places or access streets principally to facilitate movement of service and emergency vehicles.
Access Road - An Access Road is a road that provides access to abutting properties with amenity, safety and aesthetic aspects having priority over the vehicle movement function. These roads are bicycle and pedestrian friendly. They are managed by local government.
Active Asset - "Active Asset" is a term that is sometimes used by some valuers (and others) to describe above-ground networks assets (e.g. reservoir, pump station).
Active Open Space - The term Active Open Space is used to describe land on which formal outdoor sports and other organised physical activities are played or undertaken, such as sporting competitions, recreation centres, exercise grounds and those facilities that are typically hired for use such as tennis courts or swimming pools.
Administration Building - An administration building is an office building from which a business or organisation is administered. The main offices of many local councils are known as administration buildings.
Advanced Asset Management - Advanced Asset Management is Asset Management which employs predictive modelling, risk management and optimised decision making techniques to establish asset lifecycle treatment options and related long term cashflow predictions.
Advocacy - Advocacy is a political process by an individual, organisation or a group which aims to influence public-policy and resource allocation decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions.
Aerodrome - An aerodrome is a defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations, and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft.
Aggregate - Aggregate is a material composed of discrete mineral particles of specified size or size distribution, produced from sand, gravel, rock or metallurgical slag, using one or more of the following processes: selective extraction, screening, blasting or crushing. Aggregate is used in the construction of sprayed seals and in concrete mixtures.
Airport Apron - An airport apron is part of an airport. It is usually the area where aircraft are parked, unloaded or loaded, refueled or boarded. Although the use of the apron is covered by regulations, such as lighting on vehicles, it is typically more accessible to users than the runway or taxiway. However, the apron is not usually open to the general public and a license may be required to gain access.
Altitude Valve - An altitude valve is a type of valve typically found in a storage tank of a water distribution system. It closes to prevent the storage tank from overflowing when a pre-set level is reached, but will remain open while the level is below the set point.
Annual Average Daily Traffic - Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) is the total volume of vehicle traffic of a highway or road for a year divided by 365 days. AADT is a useful and simple measurement of how busy the road is.
Annual Budget - An annual budget is a budget that is prepared for a 12-month period. An annual budget outlines both the income and expenditures that are expected to be received and paid over the coming year.
Annual Depreciation - Annual Depreciation (also Annual Depreciation Charge & Annual Depreciation Expense) is the amount of depreciation charged against an asset or a group of assets over the course of a financial year.
Annual Depreciation Charge - [[include annual-depreciation]]
Annual Exceedance Probability - Annual Exceedance Probability (AEP) refers to the probability of a flood event occurring in any year. The probability is expressed as a percentage. For example, a large flood which may be calculated to have a 1% chance to occur in any one year, is described as 1%AEP.
Annual Report - An annual report is a comprehensive report on a company's activities throughout the preceding year. Local Government annual reports are intended to give ratepayers and other interested parties information about the Council's activities and financial performance.
Annual Service Cost - The Annual Service Cost is an estimate of the cost that would be tendered, per annum, if tenders were called for the supply of a service to a performance specification for a fixed term. The Annual Service Cost includes operation, maintenance, depreciation, finance, opportunity and disposal costs, less revenue.
Aquatic Centre - An Aquatic Centre (also Swimming Pool Complex) is a facility designed for people to swim and/or participate in other water based activities. Aquatic Centres may contain a range of components including; indoor and outdoor pools, kiosks, barbecues, water slides and playgrounds.
Aquifer - An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted. Some Councils rely on aquifers for part of their water supply.
- Electrical Cables
- Light Fittings
- Circuit Breakers/Fuses
- Lamp Starting Equipment
Artificial Sandstone - Artificial sandstone is sandstone created by mixing sand and a chemical or biological agent. A number of methods for creating artificial sandstone have been suggested, but to date none of them are being widely used.
Asbestos - Asbestos is a fibrous form of mineral silicates belonging to the serpentine and amphibole groups of rock-forming minerals, including actinolite, amosite (brown asbestos), anthophyllite, chrysotile (white asbestos), crocidolite (blue asbestos), tremolite, or any mixture containing one or more of the mineral silicates belonging to the serpentine and amphibole groups.
Asbestos Management Plan - An Asbestos Management Plan is a document created to help persons with control of premises to comply with the asbestos prohibition and prevent exposure to airborne asbestos fibres while ACM remain in the workplace.
Asphalt Rejuvenation - Asphalt Rejuvenation is the application of a chemical rejuvenation agent to an oxidized asphalt wearing surface in order to extend the surface's remaining useful life by increasing the quality and quantity of asphalt binder.
Asset - An asset is an object (physical or intangible) that has an identifiable value and a useful life greater than 12 months, that is or could be used by the entity responsible for it to provide a service.
Asset Condition Assessment - An Asset Condition Assessment is the process of continuous or periodic inspection, assessment, measurement and interpretation of the resultant data to indicate the condition of a specific asset so as to determine the need for some preventative or remedial action. It is a crucial part of asset management to determine remaining useful life and an assets capability to meet performance requirements.
Asset Condition Assessment Guide - An Asset Condition Assessment Guide is a document that helps a person conducting an Asset Condition Inspection to assign a consistent condition score to the asset being inspected.
Asset Hierarchy - An asset hierarchy is a framework for segmenting an asset base into appropriate classifications. The asset hierarchy can be based on asset function; asset type or a combination of the two.
Asset Maintenance Management System - An Asset Maintenance Management System (AMMS) is a system designed to program & record an organisation's maintenance activities. The term Computerised Maintenance Management System (CMMS) is often used to describe the same type of software.
Asset Management - Asset Management is the combination of management, financial, economic, engineering and other practices applied to physical assets with the objective of providing the required level of service in the most cost effective manner. It includes the management of the whole life cycle (design, construction, commissioning, operating, maintaining, repairing, modifying, replacing and decommissioning/disposal) of physical and infrastructure assets.
Asset Management Improvement Plan - An Asset Management Improvement Plan is a strategic plan that provides for monitoring and control of the Asset Management Improvement Activites. It provides the link between the Asset Management Strategy and the annual operations plans and budgets. This plan will ensure that acceptable progress is made on improving asset management processes and procedures and that progress can be verified and quantified.
Asset Management Maturity Model - An Asset Management Maturity Model is a standardised list of asset management related competencies that can be used to compare how well different organisations are implementing asset management.
Asset Management Plan - An Asset Management Plan (AMP) is a plan developed for the management of one or more infrastructure asset classes with a view to operating, maintaining and renewing the assets within the class in the most cost effective manner possible, whilst providing a specific level of service."
Asset Renewal - [[include renewal]]
Asset Revaluation Index - An Asset Revaluation Index is a measure of how the cost of engineering construction changes over time. The Queensland Office of Economic and Statistical Research publishes 3 monthly Asset Revaluation Index updates.
Asset Strategic Plan - The Financial Management Standard 1997 requires asset strategic planning to be undertaken by agencies as part of their strategic and operational planning processes. The asset strategic plan links with other strategic plans of the agency including finance, human resources and information systems as enabling strategies for the delivery of the agency's core services.
Asset Sub-Type - Asset Sub-Type is a field within some asset management systems. It is typically more specific than the asset type field, and may reference an asset's; function, material, size & style.
Asset Sustainability Ratio - The Local Government Association of South Australia collects information on the performance of all Councils as part of its Comparative Performance Measurement Project (CPMP). Sources of this information include a number of government agencies, and a voluntary community survey.
Attack Hydrant - An attack hydrant is a term used to describe a fire hydrant with flow and pressure suitable for fighting a fire at a commercial premises. In most cases it would be an internal hydrant on a commercial premises supplied from a permanent booster pump or a fire fighting appliance.
Audit Committee - An audit committee is an advisory committee established by a Council to:
(i) focus on issues relevant to the integrity of the Council’s financial reporting
(ii) monitor risk management systems, internal control framework, compliance and internal audit activities
(iii) liaise between external auditors, internal auditors and management.
Audit Trail - An audit trail is a cross-referenced record of relevant information accompanying an entity's financial statements, sufficient in detail and clarity to enable an informed opinion to be formed as to the validity of such statements.
Auditor's Report - An auditor's report is a document stating whether or not in an auditor's opinion the financial statement submitted by an organisation is free from material misstatements and is in compliance with prescribed accounting standards and legislation.
Automated Car Convoy - An Automated Car Convoy is a string of computer controlled driverless cars slaved to the directions of the professional driver leading the group. The driverless cars maintain the correct speed and distance from the lead car.
Auxiliary Lane - An auxiliary lane is that portion of the carriageway adjoining through traffic lanes, used to separate either faster overtaking traffic or slower moving vehicles from through traffic, or for other purposes supplementary to through traffic movement.
Average Recurrence Interval - The Average Recurrence Interval (ARI) of a rain event is an estimate of the average time between random events. For example, in relation to rain events, historical data may indicate that a particular area has had 50 mm of rain in 30 minutes approximately every 25 years. This means that the probability of 50 mm of rain falling in 30 minutes in a particular locality in any one year is 1 in 25. Alternatively, there is a 4% chance of such a rain event in any one year, or 4 AEP.
Ball Valve - A ball valve is a valve that uses a ball shaped disk to start and stop flow. Ball valves are one of the simplest valve types, and are made in 1-piece, 2-piece and 3-piece configurations. They tend to be the cheapest valve type and one of the easiest to maintain.
Benchmarking - Benchmarking is a process to measure, analyse, assess and describe an organisation’s performance against agreed criteria for appropriate management purposes. It is a tool used to compare a company’s performance against recognised benchmarks, targets or compliance with local laws.
Biocement - Biocement is a term coined by Dr Cord Ruwisch of Murdoch University to describe calcium carbonate formed by soil based bacteria. Biocement can "set" sand into a solid rock-type material without the need to remove the sand from its location.
Biofilm - A biofilm is a microbial layer that is formed on the inside of water distribution pipes. The source of the bacteria is the water itself. Even treated water is not 100% free of bacteria. These bacteria remain after surviving the treatment process or ingress into the pipes by other means and thereby escape treatment.
Bioretention System - A Bioretention System is a system that uses vegetation to reduce downstream flow velocities and subsequent drain sizes whilst facilitating treatment. Bio-retention systems combine various Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) treatment types in one 'treatment train'. A system is designed to carry out primary and/or secondary treatment processes of stormwaters and retard flows. This retention or retardation can enable sediments to precipitate out of the water taking along with it some pollutants. The use of biological processes to 'treat' stormwater whilst facilitating conveyance and retention gives rise to the title of Bio-retention.
Bio-Retention System - A Bio-Retention System is a well-vegetated, retention cell or pond designed to enhance water filtration through a specially prepared sub-surface sand filter. Bio-retention cells may be incorporated into grass or vegetated swales or may be a stand-alone treatment system. The system incorporates vegetation with medium-term stormwater retention and sub-surface filtration/infiltration.
Bitumen - Bitumen is a very viscous liquid or a solid, consisting essentially of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, which are soluble in carbon disulphide. It is substantially non-volatile and softens gradually when heated. It possesses waterproofing and adhesive properties. It is obtained from native asphalt or by processing the residue from the refining of naturally occurring crude petroleum. Bitumen is used in the construction of Sprayed Seals.
Boardwalk - A boardwalk is a raised typically wooden pathway typically designed for use by pedestrians and cyclists. Boardwalks are often found along beaches, but they are also common as paths through wetlands, coastal dunes, and other sensitive environments.
Boat Ramp - A Boat Ramp is a structure for loading & unloading boats. A boat ramp provides a trafficable sloping surface that transitions from land to water and allows boats on trailers to be backed into the water and launched.
Boom Gate - A boom gate is a bar, or pole pivoted in such a way as to allow the boom to block vehicular access through a controlled point. It is generally electric motor driven and commonly has a system of vehicle detection for closing and authorised entry detection such as a card reader for opening.
Booster Pump Station - A Booster Pump Station is a pump station designed to boost the pressure of water within a long pipeline. Typically they would be used to boost low reticulation pressure in areas of higher elevation but can also be used to boost pressure in long transfer mains.
Bore - A Bore (or more specifically a Ground Water Bore) is a shaft constructed to extract water from an aquifer. If the water flows to the surface without the need for a pump, then the bore is called an artesian well.
Box Culvert - A Box Culvert is a П-shaped reinforced concrete structure used in civil engineering works, including; drainage and road works. Box culverts are most commonly used as an alternative to drainage pipes where design constraints limit the amount of cover available, but are also used in the construction of of a range of other assets including; pedestrian underpasses.
Brownfields Valuation - A Brownfields Valuation is a valuation of an asset that takes into account the cost associated with; existing underground services, adjacent buildings or other similar constraints when calculating the replacement cost of the asset.
- external walls, windows and doors
- internal weight-bearing walls
Building Surveyor - A Building Surveyor is a person qualified to assess building plans to ensure they are compliant with building regulations including the Building Code of Australia Standards. They are responsible for making sure that buildings are safe, accessible and energy efficient.
Built-Up Area - The Australian Road Rules define a built-up area as "an area in which there are buildings on the land next to the road, or there us street lighting, at intervals not over 100 metres for a distance of at least 500 metres or if the road is shorter than 500 metres for the whole road.
Business Continuity Management - Business Continuity Management is a holistic management process that identifies potential impacts that threaten the organisation and provides a framework for building resilience with the capability for an effective response that safeguards the interests of key stakeholders, reputation, brand and value creating and service delivery activities.
Business Continuity Plan - Business Continuity Plan is a plan that addresses the specific circumstances and needs of a business. It provides practical strategies to follow in a crisis, eg fire, flooding, storm, explosion, adverse market or financial circumstances, computer viruses or power outages.
Business Planning - Business Planning is the process of considering an organisation's future business opportunities & challenges, and putting into place mechanisms & strategies that attempt to ensure that the organisation's future business needs are met.
Butterfly Valve - A butterfly valve is used to regular flow through a pipe. The closing mechanism is a metal disk attached through its central axis to a vertical shaft. The rotation of the shaft moves the disk through the disk's vertical axis thereby opening or closing the pipe.
- Blast furnace slag
- Steel furnace slag
- Fly Ash
- Furnace bottom ash
- Incinerator bottom ash
- Coal washery reject
- Crusher fines
- Mine tailings
California Bearing Ratio - The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) is a penetration test for evaluation of the mechanical strength of road subgrades and basecourses. It was developed by the California Department of Transportation.
Capital Works Prioritisation Matrix - A Capital Works Prioritisation Matrix is a table used to assign scores to proposed capital projects. The matrix may be used in isolation or be part of a more detailed Capital Works Evaluation Framework.
Car Park - A car park is a cleared area that is more or less level and is intended for parking vehicles. The term is used to describe both individual spaces, and an area set aside for a large number of vehicles.
Caravan Park - A caravan park is a facility where people with caravans can stay overnight, or longer, in allotted sites. Many caravan parks also contain on-site cabins, and these are sometimes refered to as holiday parks.
Cartridge Filters - Cartridge filters are filters that consist of an outer housing, which contains the filter medium. The type of medium required depends on the contaminants that need to be filtered. The nominal pore size of the filter medium determines the size of the contaminant that it will exclude. For example, if the size is 5 microns, then this will exclude most of the contaminants larger than 5 microns.
Cast Iron Cement Lined Pipe - Cast iron cement lined pipes were first developed in 1922 in the USA. The aim of cement lining is to reduce corrosion of the interior of the cast iron pipe and consequently maintain acceptable hydraulic characteristics.
Catchment - A catchment, also known as watershed or drainage catchment, is an area of land surrounded by natural high features such as hills or mountains. Some of the runoff from rainwater in this area will flow to a low point like a stream or river and eventually to the ocean or an inland lake and the rest will infiltrate into the ground to become groundwater.
Centrifuge - A centrifuge is a piece of equipment, generally driven by a motor, that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis, applying force perpendicular to the axis. Centrifuges are commonly used in water and wastewater treatment to dry sludges.
Checklist - A checklist is a type of informational job aid used to reduce failure by compensating for potential limits of human memory and attention. It helps to ensure consistency and completeness in carrying out a task. A basic example is the "to do list." A more advanced checklist would be a schedule, which lays out tasks to be done according to time of day or other factors.
Chicane - A chicane is a traffic management device characterised by a reduction of the trafficable width of a road as a result of either a change in kerb & channel alignment or the placement of a traffic island on one or both sides or the road carriageway.
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