LGAM Glossary

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Acronyms . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . H . I . J . K . L . M . N . O . P . Q . R . S . T . U . V . W . X . Y . Z . All

Absorption Trench - An Absorption Trench is a trench that is excavated into the ground and is installed along the natural contour of the ground and contains an arch or slotted pipe, aggregate, geo-textile, and is back filled with topsoil. Absorption trenches treat wastewater from toilets, laundries, bathrooms and kitchens. The length of trench depends on the soils absorptive capacity and the local climatic conditions.


Access Chamber - An access chamber (or manhole) is a structure designed to allow access to an underground service, such as a stormwater pipe or a sewer.


Access Facility - An access facility is a physical means of entry or exit for vehicles between adjoining land and a road reserve.


Access Lane - An access lane is a rear or side lane providing access to parking on lots with street frontage and/or short connections between access places or access streets principally to facilitate movement of service and emergency vehicles.


Access Place - An Access Place is a cul-de-sac or minor street providing local residential access with shared traffic, pedestrian and recreation use, but with pedestrian priority.


Access Road - An Access Road is a road that provides access to abutting properties with amenity, safety and aesthetic aspects having priority over the vehicle movement function. These roads are bicycle and pedestrian friendly. They are managed by local government.


Access Street - An access street is a street providing local residential access with shared traffic, pedestrian and recreation use with local traffic priority.


Access Way - An access way is a private road or local street serving very low traffic volumes, whose design need not be dominated by traffic considerations.


Accrual Accounting - Accrual Accounting is an accounting method that recognises revenues as they are earned and expenses as they are incurred.


Accumulated Depreciation - Accumulated Depreciation is the total amount of depreciation charged to an asset from when it was first recognised to a given point in time.


Acoustic Logging - Acoustic Logging is a method of determining the location of a leak in a water main, by placing listening devices at known distances along the main.


Active Asset - "Active Asset" is a term that is sometimes used by some valuers (and others) to describe above-ground networks assets (e.g. reservoir, pump station).


Active Open Space - The term Active Open Space is used to describe land on which formal outdoor sports and other organised physical activities are played or undertaken, such as sporting competitions, recreation centres, exercise grounds and those facilities that are typically hired for use such as tennis courts or swimming pools.


Active Park - An Active Park is a park containing one or more sporting fields or that actively encourages physical activity.


Administration Building - An administration building is an office building from which a business or organisation is administered. The main offices of many local councils are known as administration buildings.


Advanced Asset Management - Advanced Asset Management is Asset Management which employs predictive modelling, risk management and optimised decision making techniques to establish asset lifecycle treatment options and related long term cashflow predictions.


Advocacy - Advocacy is a political process by an individual, organisation or a group which aims to influence public-policy and resource allocation decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions.


Aerial Photography - Aerial photography is the taking of photographs of the ground from an elevated position.


Aerobic Wastewater Treatment System - An Aerobic Wastewater Treatment System is an aerobic biological wastewater treatment system, usually producing secondary treatment.


Aerodrome - An aerodrome is a defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations, and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft.


Aerodrome Beacon - An Aerodrome Beacon is an aeronautical beacon used to indicate the location of an aerodrome from the air.


Aggregate - Aggregate is a material composed of discrete mineral particles of specified size or size distribution, produced from sand, gravel, rock or metallurgical slag, using one or more of the following processes: selective extraction, screening, blasting or crushing. Aggregate is used in the construction of sprayed seals and in concrete mixtures.


Air Valve - An air valve is a valve used on pipes to release air trapped within the pipes as a result of filling or emptying it. Air valves are situated on high points of the pipeline.


Airport - An airport is a location where aircraft such as Fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, and blimps take off and land.


Airport Apron - An airport apron is part of an airport. It is usually the area where aircraft are parked, unloaded or loaded, refueled or boarded. Although the use of the apron is covered by regulations, such as lighting on vehicles, it is typically more accessible to users than the runway or taxiway. However, the apron is not usually open to the general public and a license may be required to gain access.


Airport Terminal - An airport terminal is a building at an airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from aircraft.


Allotment - An allotment is an area of land shown on an approved Plan of Subdivision, and on which it is planned to construct a dwelling or dwellings.


Allotment Drainage - Allotment Drainage is a system of field gullies, manhole chambers and underground pipes constructed within private property to convey flows through and from allotments.


Altitude Valve - An altitude valve is a type of valve typically found in a storage tank of a water distribution system. It closes to prevent the storage tank from overflowing when a pre-set level is reached, but will remain open while the level is below the set point.


Ancillary Area - The Victorian Road Management Act 2004 defines an ancillary area as an area designated as ancillary area by the coordinating road authority under section 18 of the Act.


Animal Enclosure - An Animal Enclosure is a cage, pen or other structure used to house and or contain animals.


Animal Pound - An Animal Pound is a facility for the tempory housing of stray pets and/or livestock.


Annual Average Daily Traffic - Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) is the total volume of vehicle traffic of a highway or road for a year divided by 365 days. AADT is a useful and simple measurement of how busy the road is.


Annual Budget - An annual budget is a budget that is prepared for a 12-month period. An annual budget outlines both the income and expenditures that are expected to be received and paid over the coming year.


Annual Depreciation - Annual Depreciation (also Annual Depreciation Charge & Annual Depreciation Expense) is the amount of depreciation charged against an asset or a group of assets over the course of a financial year.


Annual Depreciation Charge - [[include annual-depreciation]]


Annual Exceedance Probability - Annual Exceedance Probability (AEP) refers to the probability of a flood event occurring in any year. The probability is expressed as a percentage. For example, a large flood which may be calculated to have a 1% chance to occur in any one year, is described as 1%AEP.


Annual Report - An annual report is a comprehensive report on a company's activities throughout the preceding year. Local Government annual reports are intended to give ratepayers and other interested parties information about the Council's activities and financial performance.


Annual Service Cost - The Annual Service Cost is an estimate of the cost that would be tendered, per annum, if tenders were called for the supply of a service to a performance specification for a fixed term. The Annual Service Cost includes operation, maintenance, depreciation, finance, opportunity and disposal costs, less revenue.


Aquatic Centre - An Aquatic Centre (also Swimming Pool Complex) is a facility designed for people to swim and/or participate in other water based activities. Aquatic Centres may contain a range of components including; indoor and outdoor pools, kiosks, barbecues, water slides and playgrounds.


Aquifer - An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted. Some Councils rely on aquifers for part of their water supply.


Aquifer Recharge System - An Aquifer Recharge System is a system for pumping or otherwise transferring stormwater or treated wastewater from a surface storage into an aquifer.


Area Lighting - Area Lighting is lighting infrastructure used to illuminate a facility. It may be considered to be an asset or asset component by some Councils, made up of:

  • Electrical Cables
  • Poles
  • Light Fittings
  • Circuit Breakers/Fuses
  • Lamp Starting Equipment
  • Conduit
  • Lamp

Art Gallery - An art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of artworks, usually visual art.


Arterial Road - An Arterial Road is a road that predominantly carries through traffic from one region to another, forming principal avenues of travel for traffic movements.


Artificial Sandstone - Artificial sandstone is sandstone created by mixing sand and a chemical or biological agent. A number of methods for creating artificial sandstone have been suggested, but to date none of them are being widely used.


Asbestos - Asbestos is a fibrous form of mineral silicates belonging to the serpentine and amphibole groups of rock-forming minerals, including actinolite, amosite (brown asbestos), anthophyllite, chrysotile (white asbestos), crocidolite (blue asbestos), tremolite, or any mixture containing one or more of the mineral silicates belonging to the serpentine and amphibole groups.


Asbestos Cement - Asbestos Cement (AC) is am material constructed from sand aggregate and cement reinforced with asbestos fibres.


Asbestos Management Plan - An Asbestos Management Plan is a document created to help persons with control of premises to comply with the asbestos prohibition and prevent exposure to airborne asbestos fibres while ACM remain in the workplace.


Asbestos Register - An Asbestos Register is a register of asbestos-containing materials.


Asphalt - Asphalt is a composite material consisting of bituminous binder and mineral aggregate mixed together then laid down in layers and compacted.


Asphalt Overlay - An Asphalt Overlay is a course of asphalt applied to and existing road surface or other pavement.


Asphalt Regulation - Asphalt Regulation is a term used to describe the application of a levelling course of asphalt to depressed or rutted area of pavement.


Asphalt Rejuvenation - Asphalt Rejuvenation is the application of a chemical rejuvenation agent to an oxidized asphalt wearing surface in order to extend the surface's remaining useful life by increasing the quality and quantity of asphalt binder.


Asset - An asset is an object (physical or intangible) that has an identifiable value and a useful life greater than 12 months, that is or could be used by the entity responsible for it to provide a service.


Asset Accounting - Asset accounting is the accounting of the asset accounts such as: cash, accounts receivable, inventory, buildings, land, equipment and intangible assets.


Asset Category - An Asset Category (also Asset Group) is a group of asset types with similar attributes.


Asset Class - An asset class is a grouping of assets of a similar nature and use.


Asset Classification Scheme - An Asset Classification Scheme is the way assets are classified within a database.


Asset Component Checklist - An asset component checklist is a list of component types that could be part of a typical asset of a particular asset type.


Asset Condition - Asset condition is a measure of the health of an asset.


Asset Condition Assessment - An Asset Condition Assessment is the process of continuous or periodic inspection, assessment, measurement and interpretation of the resultant data to indicate the condition of a specific asset so as to determine the need for some preventative or remedial action. It is a crucial part of asset management to determine remaining useful life and an assets capability to meet performance requirements.


Asset Condition Assessment Guide - An Asset Condition Assessment Guide is a document that helps a person conducting an Asset Condition Inspection to assign a consistent condition score to the asset being inspected.


Asset Condition Inspection - An Asset Condition Inspection (also Asset Condition Survey) is an inspection carried out on an asset to determine its condition.


Asset Data Collection - Asset data collection, is the process of collecting physical asset data.


Asset Database - An Asset Database is a database containing asset related information.


Asset Disposal Plan - An Asset Disposal Plan is a plan that documents the timing of, and the costs associated with the disposal of assets. It typically forms part of an Asset Management Plan.


Asset Hierarchy - An asset hierarchy is a framework for segmenting an asset base into appropriate classifications. The asset hierarchy can be based on asset function; asset type or a combination of the two.


Asset Identification Label - An Asset Identification Label is an adhesive plastic tag that can be affixed to an asset to help identify it. The tags may or may not be bar coded.


Asset Inventory - An asset inventory is a list of assets containing sufficient information about the assets to physically locate and identify them.


Asset Maintenance Management System - An Asset Maintenance Management System (AMMS) is a system designed to program & record an organisation's maintenance activities. The term Computerised Maintenance Management System (CMMS) is often used to describe the same type of software.


Asset Maintenance Strategy - An Asset Maintenance Strategy is a strategy for the implementation and documentation of asset maintenance practices, plans, processes & procedures within an organisation.


Asset Management - Asset Management is the combination of management, financial, economic, engineering and other practices applied to physical assets with the objective of providing the required level of service in the most cost effective manner. It includes the management of the whole life cycle (design, construction, commissioning, operating, maintaining, repairing, modifying, replacing and decommissioning/disposal) of physical and infrastructure assets.


Asset Management Framework - An asset management framework is a set of documents, systems and processes that addresses an organisation's asset management responsibilities.


Asset Management Improvement Plan - An Asset Management Improvement Plan is a strategic plan that provides for monitoring and control of the Asset Management Improvement Activites. It provides the link between the Asset Management Strategy and the annual operations plans and budgets. This plan will ensure that acceptable progress is made on improving asset management processes and procedures and that progress can be verified and quantified.


Asset Management Maturity Model - An Asset Management Maturity Model is a standardised list of asset management related competencies that can be used to compare how well different organisations are implementing asset management.


Asset Management Plan - An Asset Management Plan (AMP) is a plan developed for the management of one or more infrastructure asset classes with a view to operating, maintaining and renewing the assets within the class in the most cost effective manner possible, whilst providing a specific level of service."


Asset Management Policy - An Asset Management Policy is a high level document that describes how an organisation intends to approach asset management within the organisation.


Asset Management Strategy - An Asset Management Strategy is a strategy for the implementation and documentation of asset management practices, plans, processes & procedures within an organisation.


Asset Management System - Term Asset Management System (AMS) has two main meanings in the local government context.


Asset Numbering System - An Asset Numbering System is a system for assigning unique asset numbers to assets.


Asset Register - An asset register is a database or document containing specific information about the assets owned or controlled by an organisation.


Asset Renewal - [[include renewal]]


Asset Replacement Profile - An asset replacement profile is the projected variation over time of capital expenditure on replacement of assets.


Asset Revaluation Index - An Asset Revaluation Index is a measure of how the cost of engineering construction changes over time. The Queensland Office of Economic and Statistical Research publishes 3 monthly Asset Revaluation Index updates.


Asset Revaluation Reserve - An asset revaluation reserve is a reserve account that records any surplus resulting from an asset revaluation.


Asset Strategic Plan - The Financial Management Standard 1997 requires asset strategic planning to be undertaken by agencies as part of their strategic and operational planning processes. The asset strategic plan links with other strategic plans of the agency including finance, human resources and information systems as enabling strategies for the delivery of the agency's core services.


Asset Sub-Type - Asset Sub-Type is a field within some asset management systems. It is typically more specific than the asset type field, and may reference an asset's; function, material, size & style.


Asset Sustainability Ratio - The Local Government Association of South Australia collects information on the performance of all Councils as part of its Comparative Performance Measurement Project (CPMP). Sources of this information include a number of government agencies, and a voluntary community survey.


Asset Type - An asset type is a generic name assigned to a group of assets with a similar or identical function. It is usually an important field within an asset database / asset management system.


Attack Hydrant - An attack hydrant is a term used to describe a fire hydrant with flow and pressure suitable for fighting a fire at a commercial premises. In most cases it would be an internal hydrant on a commercial premises supplied from a permanent booster pump or a fire fighting appliance.


Audit Committee - An audit committee is an advisory committee established by a Council to:
(i) focus on issues relevant to the integrity of the Council’s financial reporting
(ii) monitor risk management systems, internal control framework, compliance and internal audit activities
(iii) liaise between external auditors, internal auditors and management.


Audit Trail - An audit trail is a cross-referenced record of relevant information accompanying an entity's financial statements, sufficient in detail and clarity to enable an informed opinion to be formed as to the validity of such statements.


Auditor's Report - An auditor's report is a document stating whether or not in an auditor's opinion the financial statement submitted by an organisation is free from material misstatements and is in compliance with prescribed accounting standards and legislation.


Australian Height Datum - The Australian Height Datum (AHD) is a geodetic datum for altitude measurement in Australia.


Automated Car Convoy - An Automated Car Convoy is a string of computer controlled driverless cars slaved to the directions of the professional driver leading the group. The driverless cars maintain the correct speed and distance from the lead car.


Auxiliary Lane - An auxiliary lane is that portion of the carriageway adjoining through traffic lanes, used to separate either faster overtaking traffic or slower moving vehicles from through traffic, or for other purposes supplementary to through traffic movement.


Average Recurrence Interval - The Average Recurrence Interval (ARI) of a rain event is an estimate of the average time between random events. For example, in relation to rain events, historical data may indicate that a particular area has had 50 mm of rain in 30 minutes approximately every 25 years. This means that the probability of 50 mm of rain falling in 30 minutes in a particular locality in any one year is 1 in 25. Alternatively, there is a 4% chance of such a rain event in any one year, or 4 AEP.


Baggage Carousel - A baggage carousel is a mechanical conveyor belt-like device, designed to deliver checked luggage to travelers after they have disembarked.


Balance Tank - A Balance Tank is a tank or reservoir used to store water for the purpose of equalising or balancing fluctuating demand.


Ball Valve - A ball valve is a valve that uses a ball shaped disk to start and stop flow. Ball valves are one of the simplest valve types, and are made in 1-piece, 2-piece and 3-piece configurations. They tend to be the cheapest valve type and one of the easiest to maintain.


Barbecue - A Barbecue (also Barbeque & BBQ) is an outdoor cooking device often located in Council parks.


Barbecue Shelter - A barbecue shelter is a shelter erected above a barbecue to provide shade and/or protection rain.


Baseline Water Use - Baseline Water Use is the water usage for all sites within an organisation’s Water Management Action Plan over a 12 month period.


Belt Press - A belt press or belt press filter is a device used to separate out sludge from wastewater. Belt presses typically consist of two permeable filter belts and a number of rollers.


Benchmarking - Benchmarking is a process to measure, analyse, assess and describe an organisation’s performance against agreed criteria for appropriate management purposes. It is a tool used to compare a company’s performance against recognised benchmarks, targets or compliance with local laws.


Bicycle Activity Area - A bicycle activity area is an area within a playground designed for use by children with bicycles.


Bicycle Lane - A bicycle lane is a narrow traffic lane set aside on a road for the use of cyclists.


Bicycle Path - A Bicycle Path (or Cycle Path) is a track, path, track or lane designated for use by cyclists from which motorised traffic is generally excluded.


Bikeway - A bikeway is a road, track, path or marked lane designated for use by cyclists from which motorised traffic is generally excluded.


Binder - A binder is a bituminous material used for waterproofing the surface of a road or similar pavement and holding an aggregate layer to it.


Biocement - Biocement is a term coined by Dr Cord Ruwisch of Murdoch University to describe calcium carbonate formed by soil based bacteria. Biocement can "set" sand into a solid rock-type material without the need to remove the sand from its location.


Biofilm - A biofilm is a microbial layer that is formed on the inside of water distribution pipes. The source of the bacteria is the water itself. Even treated water is not 100% free of bacteria. These bacteria remain after surviving the treatment process or ingress into the pipes by other means and thereby escape treatment.


Biofiltration System - A Biofiltration System is a system that uses plants or other biological agents to treat water.


Bioretention Swale - A bioretention swale is a swale with a bioretention system installed in its base.


Bioretention System - A Bioretention System is a system that uses vegetation to reduce downstream flow velocities and subsequent drain sizes whilst facilitating treatment. Bio-retention systems combine various Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) treatment types in one 'treatment train'. A system is designed to carry out primary and/or secondary treatment processes of stormwaters and retard flows. This retention or retardation can enable sediments to precipitate out of the water taking along with it some pollutants. The use of biological processes to 'treat' stormwater whilst facilitating conveyance and retention gives rise to the title of Bio-retention.


Bio-Retention System - A Bio-Retention System is a well-vegetated, retention cell or pond designed to enhance water filtration through a specially prepared sub-surface sand filter. Bio-retention cells may be incorporated into grass or vegetated swales or may be a stand-alone treatment system. The system incorporates vegetation with medium-term stormwater retention and sub-surface filtration/infiltration.


Biosolids - Biosolids is sewage sludge that has been treated to reduce disease causing pathogens, thus becoming suitable for beneficial reuse. Biosolids have been used in:


Bitumen - Bitumen is a very viscous liquid or a solid, consisting essentially of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, which are soluble in carbon disulphide. It is substantially non-volatile and softens gradually when heated. It possesses waterproofing and adhesive properties. It is obtained from native asphalt or by processing the residue from the refining of naturally occurring crude petroleum. Bitumen is used in the construction of Sprayed Seals.


Bitumen Seal - Bitumen Seal -> Sprayed Seal


Black Water - Black water is water which contains human, food or animal waste.


Block Cracking - Block Cracking is a series of interconnecting cracks that form in a roughly rectangular pattern. It can occur in both concrete and flexible road pavements.


Blow Out - A blow out commonly occurs in pressure pipes due to corrosion pitting in metallic pipes.


Blower - A blower is a piece of machinery used to force air to flow from one point to another.


Boardwalk - A boardwalk is a raised typically wooden pathway typically designed for use by pedestrians and cyclists. Boardwalks are often found along beaches, but they are also common as paths through wetlands, coastal dunes, and other sensitive environments.


Boat Ramp - A Boat Ramp is a structure for loading & unloading boats. A boat ramp provides a trafficable sloping surface that transitions from land to water and allows boats on trailers to be backed into the water and launched.


Boating Facility - A Boating Facility is any facility constructed for boating purposes, such as a pontoon, boat ramp or jetty.


Bollard - A bollard is a post designed to act as a barrier to traffic.


Boom Gate - A boom gate is a bar, or pole pivoted in such a way as to allow the boom to block vehicular access through a controlled point. It is generally electric motor driven and commonly has a system of vehicle detection for closing and authorised entry detection such as a card reader for opening.


Booster Pump Station - A Booster Pump Station is a pump station designed to boost the pressure of water within a long pipeline. Typically they would be used to boost low reticulation pressure in areas of higher elevation but can also be used to boost pressure in long transfer mains.


Border Road - Border Road -> Boundary Road


Bore - A Bore (or more specifically a Ground Water Bore) is a shaft constructed to extract water from an aquifer. If the water flows to the surface without the need for a pump, then the bore is called an artesian well.


Bore Pump Station - A Bore Pump Station is a water pump station designed to extract water from an aquifer.


Boundary Road - A Boundary Road is a road located on the boundary between municipalities.


Box Culvert - A Box Culvert is a П-shaped reinforced concrete structure used in civil engineering works, including; drainage and road works. Box culverts are most commonly used as an alternative to drainage pipes where design constraints limit the amount of cover available, but are also used in the construction of of a range of other assets including; pedestrian underpasses.


Breakdown Maintenance - Breakdown Maintenance is maintenance that is performed on an asset after it has failed.


Bridge - A bridge is a structure built to span a gorge, valley, road, railroad track, river, body of water, or any other physical obstacle.


Bridge Hierarchy - A Bridge Hierarchy is a scheme for categorising bridges into groups that are treated similarly.


Bridge Load Limit - A bridge load limit is a restriction placed on the mass vehicles allowed to cross a given bridge.


Bro-Pit - A Bro-Pit is a precast Side Inlet Pit manufactured by Rocla.


Brownfields Valuation - A Brownfields Valuation is a valuation of an asset that takes into account the cost associated with; existing underground services, adjacent buildings or other similar constraints when calculating the replacement cost of the asset.


Buffer Zone - A buffer zone is an area of land separating certain types of development from adjoining sensitive land uses to minimise negative impacts.


Building - A building is any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy.


Building Audit - A building audit is an assessment of if a building is suitable for a given purpose, and/or what actions need to be undertaken to make the building suitable for an given purpose.


Building Envelope - The term Building Envelope is used to describe the structure of of a building including;

  • external walls, windows and doors
  • internal weight-bearing walls
  • cladding.

Building Hierarchy - A Building Hierarchy is a scheme for categorising buildings into groups that are treated similarly.


Building Permit - A building permit is a document that certifies that a building surveyor has approved documentation for proposed building work prior to its commencement.


Building Surveyor - A Building Surveyor is a person qualified to assess building plans to ensure they are compliant with building regulations including the Building Code of Australia Standards. They are responsible for making sure that buildings are safe, accessible and energy efficient.


Built-Up Area - The Australian Road Rules define a built-up area as "an area in which there are buildings on the land next to the road, or there us street lighting, at intervals not over 100 metres for a distance of at least 500 metres or if the road is shorter than 500 metres for the whole road.


Bus Bay - A Bus Bay is an indented space adjacent to a traffic lane designed to let buses embark and disembark passengers, without hindering the flow of traffic.


Bus Lane - A bus lane is a traffic lane restricted to buses on certain days and times, and generally used to speed up public transport that would be otherwise held up by traffic congestion.


Bus Shelter - A Bus Shelter or Bus Stop Shelter is a shade structure erected adjacent to a bus stop, to shield potential passengers from rain and/or the sun.


Bus Zone - A bus zone is an area set aside for the exclusive use of public buses.


Business Case - A Business Case is a document that captures the reasoning for initiating a project or task.


Business Continuity Management - Business Continuity Management is a holistic management process that identifies potential impacts that threaten the organisation and provides a framework for building resilience with the capability for an effective response that safeguards the interests of key stakeholders, reputation, brand and value creating and service delivery activities.


Business Continuity Plan - Business Continuity Plan is a plan that addresses the specific circumstances and needs of a business. It provides practical strategies to follow in a crisis, eg fire, flooding, storm, explosion, adverse market or financial circumstances, computer viruses or power outages.


Business Excellence Framework - A Business Excellence Framework is a management system that helps an organisation improve its practices.


Business Needs Analysis - A Business Needs Analysis is a study that attempts to identify business needs and determine solutions to business problems.


Business Plan - A business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals.


Business Planning - Business Planning is the process of considering an organisation's future business opportunities & challenges, and putting into place mechanisms & strategies that attempt to ensure that the organisation's future business needs are met.


Butterfly Valve - A butterfly valve is used to regular flow through a pipe. The closing mechanism is a metal disk attached through its central axis to a vertical shaft. The rotation of the shaft moves the disk through the disk's vertical axis thereby opening or closing the pipe.


By-Product Aggregate - By-product aggregate is any aggregate created in the in process of producing another product. Examples include:

  • Blast furnace slag
  • Steel furnace slag
  • Fly Ash
  • Furnace bottom ash
  • Incinerator bottom ash
  • Coal washery reject
  • Crusher fines
  • Mine tailings

California Bearing Ratio - The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) is a penetration test for evaluation of the mechanical strength of road subgrades and basecourses. It was developed by the California Department of Transportation.


Canal - A canal is an artificial waterway.


Capital Expenditure - Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) is expenditure that creates an asset or that increases an existing asset's remaining useful life (RUL).


Capital Upgrade - A Capital Upgrade is any project (including a land purchase) that extends or upgrades and asset to cater for growth or additional service levels.


Capital Works - Capital works are any works that create new infrastructure assets or increase the replacement or written down value of existing infrastructure assets.


Capital Works Evaluation Framework - A Capital Works Evaluation Framework is a system used to assist in prioritising projects for consideration within an organisation's Capital Works Program.


Capital Works Prioritisation Matrix - A Capital Works Prioritisation Matrix is a table used to assign scores to proposed capital projects. The matrix may be used in isolation or be part of a more detailed Capital Works Evaluation Framework.


Capital Works Program - A Capital Works Program is a list of capital projects (new works, upgrades and renewals) programmed for construction in a given year or years.


Capitalisation - Capitalisation is the process of recognising a cost as part of the cost of an asset.


Car Park - A car park is a cleared area that is more or less level and is intended for parking vehicles. The term is used to describe both individual spaces, and an area set aside for a large number of vehicles.


Car Parking - Car Parking can refer to both the act of parking a car and to a physical car park.


Caravan Park - A caravan park is a facility where people with caravans can stay overnight, or longer, in allotted sites. Many caravan parks also contain on-site cabins, and these are sometimes refered to as holiday parks.


Carriageway - The carriageway is that portion of the road formation, including lanes, auxiliary lanes and shoulders that is set aside for the use of vehicles, either moving or stationary.


Carriageway Code - A Carriageway Code is an abbreviation used by some road authorities to describe certain types of roads.


Carriageway Width - The Carriageway Width is the width of road including shoulders and auxiliary lanes devoted to the use of vehicles.


Carrying Amount - Carrying amount is the amount at which an asset is recognised after deducting any accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.


Cartridge Filters - Cartridge filters are filters that consist of an outer housing, which contains the filter medium. The type of medium required depends on the contaminants that need to be filtered. The nominal pore size of the filter medium determines the size of the contaminant that it will exclude. For example, if the size is 5 microns, then this will exclude most of the contaminants larger than 5 microns.


Cash Flow Forecast - A Cash Flow Forecast is an estimate of the cash that is expected to flow into and out of a business during a period of time such as quarterly or annually.


Cashflow - Cashflow is the stream of costs and/or benefits over time resulting from a project investment or ownership of an asset.


Cast Iron Cement Lined Pipe - Cast iron cement lined pipes were first developed in 1922 in the USA. The aim of cement lining is to reduce corrosion of the interior of the cast iron pipe and consequently maintain acceptable hydraulic characteristics.


Cast Iron Pipe - A Cast Iron Pipe is a pipe made of cast iron.


Catch Drain - A catch drain is a small surface channel constructed to intercept and divert runoff away from cut slopes, embankments, disturbed areas, and stockpiles.


Catch Pit - A catch pit is a stormwater pit located at the end of a drainage channel used to settle out solids before the flow enters a stormwater drain.


Catchment - A catchment, also known as watershed or drainage catchment, is an area of land surrounded by natural high features such as hills or mountains. Some of the runoff from rainwater in this area will flow to a low point like a stream or river and eventually to the ocean or an inland lake and the rest will infiltrate into the ground to become groundwater.


Cattle Grid - A cattle grid is a type of obstacle used to prevent livestock, such as sheep or cattle, from passing along a road which penetrates the fencing surrounding an enclosed piece of land.


Causeway - A causeway is a raised carriageway across wet or low areas or across tidal water.


Cemetery - A cemetery is a spatially defined area where the remains of deceased people are buried or are otherwise interred.


Centrifuge - A centrifuge is a piece of equipment, generally driven by a motor, that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis, applying force perpendicular to the axis. Centrifuges are commonly used in water and wastewater treatment to dry sludges.


Change Management - Change Management is a structured approach to shifting/transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state.


Check Valve - A check valve is a valve that permits unidirectional flow and closes when the flow reverses. Check valves come in several configurations:


Checklist - A checklist is a type of informational job aid used to reduce failure by compensating for potential limits of human memory and attention. It helps to ensure consistency and completeness in carrying out a task. A basic example is the "to do list." A more advanced checklist would be a schedule, which lays out tasks to be done according to time of day or other factors.


Chemical Storage Area - A Chemical Storage Area is an area designed for storing chemicals.


Chicane - A chicane is a traffic management device characterised by a reduction of the trafficable width of a road as a result of either a change in kerb & channel alignment or the placement of a traffic island on one or both sides or the road carriageway.


Child Care - Child Care is the care of children either in a child care centre, a family day care or a similar service while the children's parents are working.


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