An intelligent numbering system is a system for assigning ID numbers to assets (or anything else for that matter), that describes the asset in some way.
The ID numbers assigned by an intelligent numbering system are typically alphanumeric, although it is possible to design a number only system.
The Dewey Decimal System is a well known example of an "intelligent" numbering system, with the ID number telling the user something about the content of the book it refers to.
Intelligent asset numbers will typically describe the kind of asset, and its location. For example the ID number "SPS01BAR" might conceivably refer to a Sewage Pump Station in the township of Bargara.
Intelligent numbering systems were very useful, prior to computers being widely available, but despite their name they are typically more problematic than a sequential numbering system if used in a computerised system.