In the past in rural areas roads were sometimes constructed outside of the road reserve in which they should have been located.
Often by the time the error is identified, the only practical remedy is to redefine the location of the road reserve to match the physical location of the road. Often the old road reserve is exchanged for the private land on which the road is located. This is known as a Road Reserve Realignment
In Victoria this exchange can be effected using the deviation provisions of Schedule 10 of the Local Government Act.